Key signature is the number of sharps and flats a key has for us to easily identify it. When you look at a musical piece, you would find out that at the very beginning of the piece you would see series or a single sharp(s) or flat(s). They are there for you to determine the key the piece is written on. Look at an example in the picture above.
key signature


Those two sharps there tells whoever wants to interprete the piece the key of the song, so how does the circle of fifths and fourths help us to do this:
How do you determine the key signature of a song using the circle of 4ths  and 5ths

circle of 4th and fifth

The left hand side of the clock are the flats, while the right hand side are the sharps:
Therefore according to the diagram

G = #

D = ##

A = ###

E = ####

B = ##### or bbbbbbb

F# = ###### or bbbbbb

Db = ####### or bbbbb

Ab = bbbb

Eb = bbb

Bb = bb

F = b


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